1. Kinfemichael, B. The rise of services and convergence in labor productivity among countries / Kinfemichael B. // Applied economics letters. – 2019. – Vol. -26. – iss. 21. – P. 1749-1755.
Studies of economic convergence among countries usually focus on per capita GDP or on a particular sector, such as labor productivity in the manufacturing sector. Using value-added data from the United Nations Statistics Division's National Accounts and employment data from the International Labour Organization (ILO), we compile labor productivity data for 160 countries for the period 1991-2016 in order to examine labor productivity convergence for broad sectors and for the aggregate economy. The results demonstrate the emergence of convergence in labor productivity among countries. The rate of convergence increases significantly when we consider only 141 countries, excluding the low-income countries. The sectoral convergence test reveals that the service sector is the leading force behind the recently observed catching-up in labor productivity among countries, followed by manufacturing. Reallocation of labor across sectors seems to have increased aggregate productivity in developing countries while reducing it in developed countries.
Article 23(4) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states 'Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.' This article documents the global legislative history of Article 23(4) trade union rights from its original drafting to interpretation by international labour standards. The history includes debates on the fundamental principles of trade union rights, the decision by ECOSOC to ignore a call to establish a permanent UN Commission on Trade Union Rights, the devolution of authority from the United Nations to the International Labour Organization, how ILO international law experts framed trade union rights as a subset of the freedom of association, and the treatment of labour relations policy, including compulsory union membership, that resulted under international human rights norms. The history is discussed as one that confines standards of policy on labour rights in the global political economy and has particular implications for the discourse on labour rights as human rights.
3. Kilpatrick, C. Taking the measure of changing labour mobilization at the international labour organisation in the wake of the eu sovereign debt crisis / kilpatrick c. // international & comparative law quarterly. – 2019. – Vol. 68. – iss. 3. – P. 665-697.
4. van der Linden, M. The International Labour Organization, 1919-2019: An Appraisal / van der Linden M. // Labor-studies in working-class history of the americas. – 2019. – Vol.16. – iss. 2. – P. 11-41.
How can we appraise the record of the International Labour Organization (ILO, 1919–2019) over the last century? In the present essay it is argued that the first half century of the ILO consisted of “fat years,” in which regulating the global labor market achieved limited but clear progress, and that the second half century was a time of “lean years,” when the ILO accomplished less. Following a brief review of the origins and early history of the ILO, the essay illustrates this by showing how the relative attainments from the period until around 1970 were subsequently weakened. Unless it manages to reinvent itself in the near future, the organization is now in danger of further marginalization.
5. Liebel, M. The Movements of Working Children and the International Labour Organization. A Lesson on Enforced Silence / Liebel M., Invernizzi A. // Children & society. – 2019. – Vol. – iss. 2. - P 142-153.
Relations between the International Labour Organization (ILO) and grassroots movements of working children are characterised by tensions. Working children's claim to participate in conceptualising child labour policy is increasingly rejected. Most recently, in November 2017, the Latin American Movement of Working Children and Adolescents (MOLACNATs) lodged a complaint with the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child over violations of rights enshrined in the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. This article reconstructs the history of working children's movements and their communication with ILO since the 1990s. (C) 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and National Children's Bureau
6. Leesungwook Implications in the ratification of the fundamental ILO Conventions and its consequences for the Korean Labour Law System / Leesungwook // Journal of Labour Law. – 2019. – Vol.71. – P. 219-267.
Among the fundamental Conventions in the International Labour Organization(‘ILO’), Korea has not yet ratified the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948 (No. 87) and the Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98) in the field of the freedom of association. As the Korean Government appears to keep its promises for the ratification of these Conventions, the obstacles to the ratification needs to be identified in law as well as in practices in the light of international labour standards. For this purpose, firstly this article tries to focus on the implication of the ratification of fundamental Conventions to the Korean legislation and practices. After exploring the background of ‘core labour standards’ and the adoption of the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work in 1998 which have played a significant role to clarify the international labour standards, this article identifies several legal and practical issues in Korean labour system presumably in conflict with the international labour standards. Lastly, it suggests several alternatives to resolves these conflicts and obstacles to the ratification of these fundamental conventions.
7. Скачкова, Г. С. 100-летие Международной организации труда (МОТ) / Г. С. Скачкова // Государство и право. – 2019. – Вып. 6. – С. 34-43.
В статье изложены вопросы, связанные с празднованием в2019 г. столетия со дня образования Международной организации труда (МОТ). Показано значение Версальского мирного договора в создании МОТ, в рамках которой объединились правительства, представители работников и работодателей. Рассмотрены вопросы об основных направлениях деятельности МОТ и ее структуре. Особое место в статье заняли вопросы реализации инициатив МОТ, выдвинутых в преддверии празднования. Обращено внимание на мероприятия, проводимые в России в связи с реализацией инициативы МОТ «Будущее труда».
8. Borzaga, M. The policies of the international labour organisation and the european union on the fight against poverty | [Le politiche dell'organizzazione internazionale del lavoro e dell'unione europea in tema di contrasto alla povert] / Borzaga, M. // Lavoro e Diritto. – 2019. – Vol. 33. – C. 63-80.
All rights reserved. The essay focuses on the policies against poverty (with particular regard to in-work poverty) of the International Labour Organisation and the European Union. It offers a critical analysis of such policies, which have been reinforced in the last decades but at the same time present serious implementation difficulties, since they have been mainly enclosed into soft law (i.e. non-legally binding) measures.
9. De Stefano, V. To whom do ILO standards apply? The personal scope of International Labour Standards | [L'ambito di applicazione soggettivo degli International Labour Standards dell'OIL] / De Stefano, V.// Lavoro e Diritto. – 2019. – Vol. 33. – P. 429-446.
This essay investigates the personal scope of the International Labour Standards of the ILO. By analysing the wording of International Labour Standards (ILSs) and the opinions of the ILO Supervisory Bodies, it argues that there is not a universal international definition of “employees” or of the “employment contract” or “the employment relationship”. It suggests that even when ILSs do use such terms as “employment” or “employment relationship” the personal scope of ILO instruments should be determined on a case-by-case basis, also by referring to the travaux préparatoires and to the opinions of the Supervisory Bodies and by taking into account the objectives of the relevant instruments. This article examines in particular the ILO Fundamental Conventions and their application by the ILO Supervisory Bodies and refers to debates currently taking place at the ILO on the adoption of ILSs on the elimination of violence and harassment in the world of work and of a Universal Labour Guarantee that apply to “all workers, regardless of their contractual arrangement or employment
10. Suttawet, C. International labour standards and decent work: a critical analysis of Thailand's experiences, with suggestions for theory, policy, practice and research / Suttawet C., Bamber G. J. // Asia pacific journal of human resources. - 2018. – Vol. 56. – iss. 4. – P. 539-565.
11. Thomann, B. Labor Issues as International Affairs: Japan and the International Labour Organization from 1919 to 1938 / Thomann B. // Social science japan journal. - 2018. – Vol. 21. – iss. 2. – P. 329-344.
Prewar Japanese labor policies were not only shaped by industrial mutations, the development of labor unions, and domestic political changes, but rather, were also inspired by ideas that circulated from one continent to the other through international contacts among labor unionist and social reformist. To date, there has been no detailed historical analysis that systematically draws on first-hand data of how Japan's membership in the International Labour Organization (ILO) changed the course of its labor governance strategy in the interwar period. ILO membership compelled the Japanese governing elites to face up to important questions regarding national economic development For example, what was the better strategy to enrich and strengthen the nation: cheap, submissive labor or collective bargaining improving working conditions to generate higher productivity? In light of the international geopolitical context that was unfolding what was the more realistic option: free trade by means of diplomatic cooperation or expanding the country's economic bloc by means of territorial conquest?This article draws on the rich, hitherto unused ILO archives in Geneva, to focus on the developments in relations between the ILO and Japan from the organization's creation in 1919 through to the country's departure in 1938. It documents the changing and contingent reasons why the ILO was an important partner for Japan, while uncovering the pivotal role played by liberal social reformists throughout this period.
12. Koliev, F. Selecting for Shame: The Monitoring of Workers' Rights by the International Labour Organization, 1989 to 2011 / Koliev F., Lebovic J.H // International studies quarterly. – 2018. - Vol. 62. – iss. 2. – P. 437-452.
Why do intergovernmental organizations target some countries, but not others, for naming and shaming? We seek answers by examining these processes within the International Labour Organization (ILO), which through two principal bodies, monitors compliance with international conventions governing the rights of workers. We examine whether political interests and calculations or norms inducing adherence to international conventions best explain which countries the ILO calls out for their misconduct, what punishment countries receive, and whether naming and shaming in the ILO amount to distinctive activities. Based on an analysis of the 1989-2011 period, we find considerable evidence that norms matter to members of both ILO bodies. That is, we find evidence that the ILO "does its job" by acting in accordance with the organization's formal mandate. We also find evidence that the process of naming, which leads to the initial identification of culprits, stands apart from the process by which the ILO prioritizes, or chooses, from among countries for shaming. While our findings are specific to the ILO, they back claims that IOs can override states interests, if crafted in ways that limit political influence.
Mechi, L. Managing the Labour Market in an Open Economy: From the International Labour Organisation to the European Communities / Mechi L. // Contemporary european history. – 2018. – Vol. 27. – iss. 2. – P. 221-238.
Since their foundation, the European Communities were characterised by a specific recipe for the labour market, centred on the promotion of labour mobility and a marked focus on vocational training and social dialogue. Drawing on an extensive range of primary sources, this article retraces the roots of that recipe in the reformist thinking of the interwar years, with a special point of reference in the International Labour Office. Identified within that body since the 1920s, the recipe evolved through the experiences of the great crisis and post-war demobilisation. It was then adapted to the needs of European economic integration.
14. Thomas, H. From horizontal to vertical labour governance: The International Labour Organization (ILO) and decent work in global supply chains / Thomas H. Turnbull P. // Human relations. - 2018. – Vol.71. – iss. 4. – P. 536-559.
The role of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in the governance of global supply chains is typically neglected or simply dismissed as ineffective. This is understandable as global supply chains have undermined the traditional nation state (horizontal) paradigm of global labour governance, most notably the international Conventions agreed by the tripartite constituents (governments, employers and workers' representatives) of the ILO. But this simply poses the question of whether, and if so how, the ILO can reframe the system of global labour governance to include the (vertical) global supply chains that all too often fail to deliver decent work for all'. Based on an extended ethnographic study, we demonstrate how policy entrepreneurs (international civil servants) within the ILO can play a pivotal role in not only reframing the discourse in a way that resonates with the lived experiences' of constituents but also orchestrate' the social partners in order to secure majority support for a process that might ultimately lead to a new standard (Convention) for decent work in global supply chains. A new approach to employment relationships in global supply chains is in the making', with the potential to improve working conditions and rights at work for millions across the globe.
15. Aeberhard-Hodges, J. An International Labour Organization instrument on violence against women and men at work: The Australian influence / Aeberhard-Hodges J., McFerran L. // Journal of industrial relations/ - 2018. – Vol. – 60. – iss. 2. – P. 246-265.
Violence in and out of work, both domestic violence and sexual harassment, are violations of human rights and impact heavily in the workplace. All forms of violence result in a high cost for workers, employers and society in general, in lost time, injuries, complaints, staff turnover, loss of skills, and reputational risk. The International Labour Organization has decided to discuss in 2018 an international labour standard on this subject. In Australia, there has been wide recognition for some time of sexual harassment as a significant workplace issue. Now there are greater inroads toward recognizing and addressing the impact of other forms of gender-based violence in the world of work, hence the growing number of clauses in enterprise agreements and state awards aiming to mitigate the impact of domestic violence on workers, both women and men, and the movement to have clauses in modern awards that specify paid time off to allow a worker time to deal with the problem. Australian experience may help shape the proposed International Labour Organization instrument on workplace gendered violence.
16. Wobbe, T. The category of 'family workers' in International Labour Organization statistics (1930s-1980s): A contribution to the study of globalized gendered boundaries between household and market (vol 12, pg 340, 2017) / Wobbe T., Renard L. // Journal of global history. - 2018. – Vol. 13. – iss. 1. – P. 156-156.