Activation policies form the core of employment policies in most OECD countries. They are part of 'active' welfare states and associated neoliberal forms of governance that seek to govern through freedom by producing self-governing and responsible subjectivities. Ethnographies of governmentalities have been used in the research reported in this article to examine if and how such subjectivities are put in practice in street-level encounters in local welfare delivery. Based on an ethnographic research of youth services in the Public Employment Services (PES) in Helsinki, Finland, it is shown that despite the policy focus on active citizenship the street-level practice entails not only liberal ideas of self-governing individuals but also authoritarian measures. What is governed in the meetings is not the young people's selves but their time and behaviour. In the process, the notion of active citizenship is emptied and transformed to mean participation in supervised activities offered by the PES. Such practice also reworks the temporal structures and creates insecure and eventful experience of time for PES clients. In contrast to governing through freedom, the localized interpretation of activation policies represents the authoritarian and paternalistic side of neoliberal governance.
2. Krocil, O. Integration social enterprises as a tool of employment policy / Krocil O., Dopita M. Pospisil R. // Ekonomski pregled. – 2019. - Vol. 70, iss. 3. – P. 554-571.
3. Blazquez, M. Training and job search assistance programmes in Spain: The case of long-term unemployed / Blazquez M., Herrarte A., Saez F. // Journal of policy modeling. – Vol. 41, iss. 2. - P. 316-335.
Exploiting administrative records of the Spanish Public Employment Services for the period 2010-2012, we analyse the influence of participation in training and job search assistance programmes on the employment probability of the long-term unemployed. Using the coarsened exact matching method, we find that participation in both programmes exerts a positive influence on the employability of jobseekers, but participation in training seems to be more effective, especially as regards the likelihood of getting jobs of a certain quality. The treatment effect is higher for the long-term unemployed, thus suggesting the convenience of their participation in these active measures. (C) 2019 The Society for Policy Modeling. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
4. Bieszk-Stolorz, B. Spatial diversity of effectiveness of forms of professional activisation in Poland in years 2008-2014 by poviats / Bieszk-Stolorz B., Dmytrow K. // Oeconomia copernicana. – 2019. - Vol. 10, iss. 1. – P. 113-130.
5. Bejakovic, P. The danger of long-term unemployment and measures for its reduction: the case or Croatia / Bejakovic P, Mrnjavac Z. // Economic research-ekonomska istrazivanja. – 2019. - Vol. 31, iss. 1. – P. 1837-1850.
6. The effectiveness of active labor market policies: a meta-analysis / Vooren M., Haelermans C., Groot W. [et al.] // Journal of economic surveys. – 2019. – Vol. 33, iss. 1. – P. 125-149.
This paper provides a meta-analysis of microeconometric evaluation studies on the effectiveness of active labor market policies. The analysis is built upon a systematically assembled data set of causal impact estimates from 57 experimental and quasi-experimental studies, providing 654 estimates published between January 1990 and December 2017. We distinguish between the short and longer term impacts in our analysis; at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after program start. After correcting for publication bias and country-specific macroeconomic characteristics, subsidized labor and public employment programs have negative short-term impacts, which gradually turn positive in the longer run. Schemes with enhanced services including job-search assistance and training programs do not have these negative short-term effects, and stay positive from 6 until 36 months after program start.
8. Elezaj, L. The impact on employment of active labour market policies: an evaluation of public employment services (pes) in kosovo / Elezaj L., Gjipali A., Ademaj S. // South east european journal of economics and business. - 2019. - Vol. 14, iss. 1. - P. 61-71.
9. Abietar Lopez, M. Professionals supporting employment: training and accompaniment in Work Integration Enterprises / Abietar Lopez M., Ros-Garrido A. Marhuenda Fluixa F. // Ciriec-espana revista de economia publica social y cooperativa. – 2018. - Vol. 94. - P. 155-183.
This paper tries to detect the effectiveness of active labor market policy (ALMP) on the unemployment rate. The generalized method of moments system for dynamic panel introduced by Blundell and Bond (J Econ 87(1):115-143, 1998) is applied to our sample over a fifteen-year period from 2000 to 2014, where we aim at examining how the policy intervention, the cyclical, the institutional and macroeconomic factors interact to determine unemployment. The effect of total ALMP (service public employment, training, employment incentives, supported employment and rehabilitation, direct job creation, start-up incentives) is significantly negative on unemployment. Our results show that start-up incentives seem to be the most effective policy to reduce the unemployment rate because of its low cost. Other control variables, such as the tax wedge, employment protection legislation, inflation, investment, and GDP are also important in determining the unemployment rate.
11. The effect of active labor market policies on crime: Incapacitation and program effects / Fallesen P. Geerdsen L., Imai S. [и др.] // Labour economics. - 2018. – Vol. 52. - P. 263-286.
12. Clemens, M. A. Immigration Restrictions as Active Labor Market Policy: Evidence from the Mexican Bracero Exclusion / Clemens M. A., Lewis E. G., Postel H. M. // American economic review. – 2018. - Vol. 108. – iss. 6. – P. 1468-1487.
13. Bartolovic, V. Active labor market policies - findings from brod-posavina county / Bartolovic V., Vinkovic D. // Interdisciplinary management research xiv (imr 2018). – 2018. - Т. 14. – С. 1472-1488. – (Interdisciplinary Management Research -Interdisziplinare Managementforschung).
The goal of Active Labor Market Policies is to facilitate access to the job market for unemployed people by improving the competitiveness of unemployed people and encouraging beneficiaries of measures to actively seek employment. The source of funds for project activities is the European Social Fund, through the Human Resources Development Operational Program.
Therefore, Brodsko-Posayska County has launched two projects "Together for tomorrow's employment tomorrow" and the project 'Active lifelong employment development program': The European Social Fund under the Human Resources Development Operational Program funds the projects. It is a grant "Local Employment Development Initiatives - Phase II':
The aim of this paper is to show the results achieved in both projects and to present key challenges and recommendations for further activities. The project beneficiaries were long-term unemployed (registered with the Croatian Employment Service for over a year), unemployed young people (15-29 years) with less than one year of work experience, unemployed women, volunteer organizations. and students.
The aim of the project "Together for tomorrow's employment tomorrow" was to improve the competitiveness of unemployed people in the labor market in the Brodsko-Posayska County through the implementation of "JOB CLUB" activities. For this purpose, ten key topics for educating that will help them to improve the knowledge and skills are defined. Within the project, 'Active lifelong employment development program" is defined topics such as life and soft skills development program, entrepreneurship development program for women, program for young people and members of the association, a program for basic information and business skills development, a student practice pilot program for the student. After the fob Club Education was completed, 24 persons were employed. In the framework of the 'Active lifelong employment development program': 102 people passed through the programs.
14. Zoellner, M. An evaluation of German active labour market policies: a review of the empirical evidence / Zoellner M. Fritsch M. Wyrwich M. / journal of entrepreneurship and public policy. -2018. - Vol. 7. – iss. 4. – P. 377-410.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review the results of studies that investigate the most important active labour market policy (ALMP) measures in Germany. A focus is also on programmes devoted to foster entrepreneurship which can make important contributions to a country's growth and social welfare.
Design/methodology/approach The study relies on quantitative and qualitative assessments and a comparison of results of previous studies on ALMPs.
Findings The available evidence suggests that most ALMP measures increase labour market prospects of the participants. In particular, evaluations of the entrepreneurship promotion activities show high success rates as well as high cost efficiency. The bulk share of participants of entrepreneurship measures is still self-employed after several years and nearly one-third of these businesses had at least one employee. The authors mention problems regarding the evaluation of previous programmes and highlight future challenges of German ALMP.
Originality/value This is the first study on ALMP that has an extensive and explicit focus on entrepreneurship-promoting programs.
15. Wapler, R. Active labour market policies in Germany: do regional labour markets benefit? / Wapler R. Werner D. Wolf K. // Applied economics. – Vol. 50. – iss. 51. – P. 5561-5578.
This article examines on a regional level whether active labour market policies (ALMP) improve the matching process. To take the fact of heterogeneous search effectiveness during programme participation into account, we distinguish between current and former programme participants. Our findings based on a regional augmented matching function show that higher search effectiveness due to ALMP is not outweighed by indirect effects on nonparticipants. The total number of matches in a region increases with a higher share of former programme participants among the jobseekers. However, these effects largely differ between programme types.Abbreviation OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)ALMP (active labour market policy)
16. Gonzalez-Alegre, J. Active labour market policies and the efficiency of the European Social Fund in Spanish regions / Gonzalez-Alegre J. // Regional studies. -2018. – Vol. 52. – iss. 3. – P. 430-443.
Active labour market policies and the efficiency of the European Social Fund in Spanish regions. Regional Studies. This paper estimates the determinants of public expenditure on active labour market policies (ALMPs) at the regional level using panel data from a sample of the 17 Spanish regions (1989-2010). The estimations take into account endogeneity, dynamics and spatial dependence among regions. Estimations' outcome is interpreted with the help of a simple theoretical model of intergovernmental grants. Results reveal that the European Social Fund is not effective in its aim of promoting ALMP expenditure and show that rent-seeking when regions compete to attract funds from a common pool provokes the opposite effect, which is exacerbated in the presence of imitation.
17. Acar, O. K. An investigation of kutahya iskur's vocational training activities within the frame of active labour market politics / Acar O. K., Kazanci Yabanova E. // Journal of mehmet akif ersoy university economics and administrative sciences faculty. - 2017. – Vol. 4. – iss. 2. – P. 85-111.
One of the most common problems that today's societies encounter is undemployment. The problem of unemployment emerges as a basic concept that societies, whether they are developed or developing countries, have to struggle against all the time. The reflections of unemployment on society may cause disappointing results in terms of both economical and sociological perspectives. Political decision mechanisms produce several policies to eliminate these results and negative conditions. Besides removing unemployment, the main aim of these policies is to meet the demand of increasing skilled labourer. For this purpose, studies are carried out via organizing several training activities towards unemployed individuals to increase their qualifications. In Turkey, Turkish Employment Agency (ISKUR) is the leading organization among the institutions that are in service in this direction. Within the body of ISKUR, active and passive labour market policies are implemented in the process of struggle against unemployment. In recent years, active labour market policies have become critical and important in terms of especially training qualified labour force. Active labour market policies implemented within ISKUR are applied in the fields of Programs for Disadvantaged Groups, Programs for Community Benefit, Programs for Job Shadowing, Training Programs for Entrepreneurship and Vocational Training Courses. This study focuses on vocational training courses, programs for job shadowing and training programs for entrepreneurship which have an important and crucial place in ISKUR's active labour market policies. For this purpose, practices of vocational training courses, programs for job shadowing and training programs for entrepreneurship in Kutahya Province have been investigated and analyzed. In this context, the place and importance of these programs within active labour programs and the effect of these programs in reducing unemployment rates are evaluated by taking into consideration the general view of labour market in Kutahya.
18. Vikstrom, J. Dynamic treatment assignment and evaluation of active labor market policies / Vikstrom J. // Labour economics. - 2017. - Vol. 49. – P. 42-54.
This paper considers treatment evaluation in a discrete time setting in which treatment can start at any point in time. We consider evaluation under unconfoundedness and propose a dynamic inverse probability weighting estimator. A typical application is an active labor market program that can start after any elapsed unemployment duration. The identification and estimation results concern both cases with one single treatment as well as sequences of programs. The new estimator is applied to Swedish data on participants in a training program and a work practice program. The work practice program increases re-employment rates. Most sequences of the two programs are inefficient when compared to one single program episode. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
19. Active labor market programs' effects on entrepreneurship and unemployment / Laffineur, C., Barbosa S. D., Fayolle A. [et al.] // Small business economics. – 2017. – Vol. 49. – iss. 4. – P. 889-918. – URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-017-9857-7.
Many countries are turning to active labor market programs (ALMP) to increase individuals' incentive to start a business and to reduce unemployment, but research on the effectiveness of such programs has produced mixed results and is still inconclusive at the macroeconomic level. This article examines the importance of ALMP targeted at entrepreneurship to explain cross-country differences in aggregate entrepreneurship rate. By using GEM data over the period 2002-2013 on OECD countries, our results show a positive impact of ALMP on the rate of necessity entrepreneurship but no significant effect on the rate of opportunity entrepreneurship. We further established that generous unemployment benefits reduce the positive outcome of ALMP on the aggregate rate of necessity entrepreneurship. Moreover, because most businesses started out of necessity do not create new jobs, we find that the economic spin-off of such programs in terms of unemployment reduction is very limited.
20. Gonzalez Alegre, J. The efficiency of active labour market policies in the european union: does it make sense increasing the bill? / Gonzalez Alegre J. // Acta oeconomica. - 2017. – Vol. 67. –iss. 3. – С. 333-357.
This paper evaluates the efficiency of Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) in the European Union (EU). The paper first reviews the main trends governing the evolution of the European Social Fund (ESF) since its creation. The ESF promotes public expenditure in ALMPs in order to foster social cohesion across the EU. In order to test to what extent this strategy can be backed up by facts, we estimate the impact of public expenditure on ALMPs on the employment rate using panel data from 28 European countries (1985-2011), taking into account the endogeneity of the explanatory variables and the dynamic behaviour of their relationship. Results support the hypothesis that expenditure in ALMPs is more beneficial for employment than aggregate public expenditure. In addition, we show that periphery countries observe a larger efficiency of their ALMPs. These results support the recent policy strategy undertaken by the European Commission to raise the budget devoted to ESF in Member States experiencing higher unemployment rates.
21. McKenzie, D. How Effective Are Active Labor Market Policies in Developing Countries? A Critical Review of Recent Evidence / McKenzie, D. // World bank research observer. – 2017. – Vol. 32. – iss. 2. – P. 127-154.
Jobs are the primary policy concern of policymakers in many countries. The 2007-2008 global financial crisis, rising demographic pressures, high unemployment rates, and concerns over automation all make it seem imperative that policymakers employ increasingly more active labor market policies. This paper critically examines recent evaluations of labor market policies that have provided vocational training, wage subsidies, job search assistance, and assistance moving to argue that many active labor market policies are much less effective than policymakers typically assume. Many of these evaluations find no significant impacts on either employment or earnings. One reason is that urban labor markets appear to work reasonably well in many cases, with fewer market failures than is often thought. As a result, there is less of a role for many traditional active labor market policies than is common practice. The review discusses examples of job-creation policies that do seem to offer promise, and concludes with lessons for impact evaluation and policy is this area.
22. Benda, L.U.C. Activation is not a panacea: Active labour market policy, long-term unemployment and institutional complementarity / Benda, L.U.C., Koster, F.E.R.R.Y., Van Der Veen, R.// Journal of Social Policy. – 2019. – Vol.11. – P. 1-24.
Evaluation studies of active labour market policy show different activation measures generate contradictory results. In the present study, we argue that these contradictory results are due to the fact that the outcomes of activation measures depend on other institutions. The outcome measure in this study is the long-term unemployment rate. Two labour market institutions are of special interest in this context: namely, employment protection and unemployment benefits. Both institutions, depending on their design, may either increase or decrease the effectiveness of active labour market policies in lowering long-term unemployment. Based on an analysis of macro-level data on 20 countries over a period of 16 years, our results show that employment protection strictness and unemployment benefit generosity interact with the way in which active labour market policies relate to long-term unemployment. Our results also indicate that, depending on the measure used, active labour market policies fit either in a flexible or in a coordinated labour market. This suggests that active labour market policies can adhere to both institutional logics, which are encapsulated in different types of measures.
23. Basáñez, S.L. The synergy between employment policies and cooperatives with regard to new forms of work. An overview based on Spanish constitutional law / Basáñez, S.L.// Boletin de la Asociacion Internacional de Derecho Cooperativo. – 2019. – Vol. 54. – P. 55-74.
All rights reserved. This text explains how active employment policies and cooperatives are perfectly suited to fulfil the mandates outlined in the 1978 Spanish Constitution in relation to the promotion of cooperatives (Article 129.2), and to policies oriented towards full employment (Article 40.1), which fall under the overall protection of social rights. After analysing the provisions contained in these two articles, details are provided as to how the economic crisis and the strict balanced budget policies that ensued have also weakened the constitutional protection of social rights, with the adoption of regressive measures whose compatibility with the Constitution has been accepted by the Spanish Constitutional Court (despite divided opinions among the Court's members). Finally, an analysis is conducted of the options available within the Spanish legal system to protect and encourage cooperative societies. It is then argued that cooperatives can be a very useful instrument to create employment, even within the most innovative and dynamic sectors of the economy. These sectors include, for example, the collaborative economy (which includes the digital economy), the 'white economy', the 'green economy' and the 'circular economy'.